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  • Attention

  • Visual Processing of Information

  • Auditory Processing of Information

  • Written Expression

  • Language Development

  • ADD/ADHD indicators 

  • Fluid Reasoning

About Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dyscalculia​

There is no specific "test" to determine if someone is dyslexic, dysgraphic or dyscalulic or not. It is indicated by sub-tests given within other tests.


There is no single pattern of difficulty that affects all categories of people. To be 'diagnosed', the person must have average to above average intelligence!



Dyslexia at a Glance

  • Dyslexia is the name for specific learning disabilities in reading.

  • Dyslexia is often characterized by difficulties with accurate word recognition, decoding and spelling.

  • Dyslexia may cause problems with reading comprehension and slow down vocabulary growth.

  • Dyslexia may result in poor reading fluency and reading out loud.

  • Dyslexia is neurological and often genetic.

  • Dyslexia is not the result of poor instruction.

  • With the proper support, almost all people with dyslexia can become good readers and writers.


Much of what happens in a classroom is based on reading and writing. So it's important to identify dyslexia as early as possible. Using alternate learning methods, people with dyslexia can achieve success.


What Are the Effects of Dyslexia?

     Dyslexia can affect people differently. This depends, in part, upon the severity of the learning disability and the success of alternate learning methods. Some with dyslexia can have trouble with reading and spelling, while others struggle to write, or to tell left from right. Some children show few signs of difficulty with early reading and writing. But later on, they may have trouble with complex language skills, such as grammar, reading comprehension and more in-depth writing.


     Dyslexia can also make it difficult for people to express themselves clearly. It can be hard for them to use vocabulary and to structure their thoughts during conversation. Others struggle to understand when people speak to them. This isn't due to hearing problems. Instead, it's from trouble processing verbal information. It becomes even harder with abstract thoughts and non-literal language, such as jokes and proverbs.


     All of these effects can have a big impact on a person's self-image. Without help, children often get frustrated with learning. The stress of dealing with schoolwork often makes children with dyslexia lose the motivation to continue and overcome the hurdles they face.


How Is Dyslexia Identified?

Educational Diagnosticians can identify dyslexia using a formal evaluation. This looks at a person's ability to understand and use spoken and written language. It looks at areas of strength and weakness in the skills that are needed for reading. It also takes into account many other factors. These include family history, intellect, educational background, and social environment.


What Are the Warning Signs of Dyslexia?

     The following are common signs of dyslexia in people of different ages. If you or someone you know displays these signs, it doesn't necessarily mean you have a learning disability. But if troubles continue over time, consider testing for dyslexia.


Young Children Having Trouble With:

  • Recognizing letters, matching letters to sounds and blending sounds into speech

  • Pronouncing words, for example saying “mawn lower” instead of “lawn mower”

  • Learning and correctly using new vocabulary words

  • Learning the alphabet, numbers, and days of the week or similar common word sequences

  • Rhyming


School-Age Children Having Trouble With:

  • Mastering the rules of spelling

  • Remembering facts and numbers

  • Handwriting or with gripping a pencil

  • Learning and understanding new skills; instead, relying heavily on memorization

  • Reading and spelling, such as reversing letters (d, b) or moving letters around (left, felt)

  • Following a sequence of directions

  • Trouble with word problems in math


Teenagers and Adults Having Trouble With:

  • Reading at the expected level

  • Understanding non-literal language, such as idioms, jokes, or proverbs

  • Reading aloud

  • Organizing and managing time

  • Trouble summarizing a story

  • Learning a foreign language

  • Memorizing



Dysgraphia at a Glance

learning disability that affects writing abilities.

can manifest itself as difficulties with spelling, poor handwriting and trouble putting thoughts on paper.  

requires a complex set of motor and information processing skills, saying a student has dysgraphia is not sufficient.

can have trouble organizing letters, numbers and words on a line or page. 

makes the act of writing difficult 

can lead to problems with spelling, poor handwriting and putting thoughts on paper

may entail  trouble processing what the eye sees - Visual-spatial difficulties:

trouble processing and making sense of what the ear hears - Language processing difficulty: p.


What are the Effects of Dysgraphia?

     The person is easily frustrated by writing assignments—to the point of temper tantrums; writing can be a difficult and slow process. Being pressured to write may add to the anxiety. They may speak vaguely or talks around things and may have language processing issues, which can make it difficult to express ideas and speak about specifics.  Language processing difficulties can also make it tough for them to understand humor or language nuances such as sarcasm. They may lack confidence and frequently says, “I’m not good at this.” These people may sense they’re different from others and worry they’re not smart. That can lead to low self-esteem. 


How Is Dysgraphia Identified?

     Educational Diagnosticians can identify dyslexia using a formal evaluation. This looks at a person's ability to understand and use spoken and written language. It looks at areas of strength and weakness in the skills that are needed for reading. It also takes into account many other factors. These include family history, intellect, educational background, and social environment.


  Just having bad handwriting doesn’t mean a person has dysgraphia. Since dysgraphia is a processing disorder, difficulties can change throughout a lifetime. However since writing is a developmental process—children learn the motor skills needed to write, while learning the thinking skills needed to communicate on paper—difficulties can also overlap.


What Are the Warning Signs of Dysgraphia?

  • Tight, awkward pencil grip and body position        

  • Avoiding writing or drawing tasks         

  • Trouble forming letter shapes           

  • Inconsistent spacing between letters or words           

  • Poor understanding of uppercase and lowercase letters            

  • Inability to write or draw in a line or within margins          

  • Tiring quickly while writing  

  • illegible handwriting           

  • Mixture of cursive and print writing            

  • Saying words out loud while writing         

  • Concentrating so hard on writing that comprehension of what's written is missed           

  • Trouble thinking of words to write ·         

  •  Omitting or not finishing words in sentences Teenagers and Adults

  • Teenagers and Adults  Trouble With:          

  • Trouble organizing thoughts on paper ·         

  •  Trouble keeping track of thoughts already written down        

  •  Difficulty with syntax structure and grammar          

  • Large gap between written ideas and understanding demonstrated through speech


Dyscalculia at a Glance

No “number sense.” an intuitive understanding of how numbers work

How to compare and estimate quantities on a number line. Most researchers agree that number sense is at the core of math learning.

Doesn’t understand the basics about how numbers work, learning math and using it every day can be very frustrating.

Number blindness is one reason many kids have trouble connecting numbers to the real world. 

They can’t grasp the idea that “five cookies” has the same number of objects as “five cakes” and “five apples.”


What are the Effects of Dyscalculia?

     For individuals with visual-spatial troubles, it may be hard to visualize patterns or different parts of a math problem. Language processing problems can make it hard for a person to get a grasp of the vocabulary of math. Without the proper vocabulary and a clear understanding of what the words represent, it is difficult to build on math knowledge.


     Educational Diagnosticians can evaluate a student for learning disabilities in math.  The the student is interviewed about a full range of math-related skills and behaviors. Pencil and paper math tests are often used, but an evaluation needs to accomplish more. It is meant to reveal how a person understands and uses numbers and math concepts to solve advanced-level, as well as everyday, problems. The evaluation compares a person's expected and actual levels of skill and understanding while noting the person's specific strengths and weaknesses. Below are some of the areas that may be addressed:


Having trouble with math does not necessarily mean a person has a learning disability. All students learn at different paces. It can take young people time and practice for formal math procedures to make practical sense. So how can you tell if someone has dyscalculia?


  • Difficulty learning to count

  • Trouble recognizing printed numbers

  • Difficulty tying together the idea of a number (4) and how it exists in the world (4 horses, 4 cars, 4 children)

  • Poor memory for numbers

  • Trouble organizing things in a logical way - putting round objects in one place and square ones in another

  • Trouble learning math facts (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)

  • Difficulty developing math problem-solving skills

  • Poor long term memory for math functions

  • Not familiar with math vocabulary

  • Difficulty measuring things

  • Avoiding games that require strategy

  • Difficulty estimating costs like groceries bills

  • Difficulty learning math concepts beyond the basic math facts

  • Poor ability to budget or balance a checkbook

  • Trouble with concepts of time, such as sticking to a schedule or approximating time

  • Trouble with mental math

  • Difficulty finding different approaches to one problem

Child and Adult ADHD - Inattentive or Hyperactive
ADD ADHD Indicators

The new definition:  ADHD is described as “a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with development, has symptoms presenting in two or more settings (e.g. at home, school, or work), and negatively impacts directly on social, academic or occupational functioning”.   DSM V


Unfortunately, ADD/ADHD do not disappear disappear as you grow older.  It is with you for our lifetime. Often, it does not begin to "show up" in some people until they get older and are are expected to take in more and more information in a shorter and shorter time and to have it organized in a jiffy. This can be as late as high school, college or in the workplace.


One reason ADHDmight seem over diagnosed to some people is that awareness of the disorder has been growing since the 1990s, when it became recognized under special education law as a condition that affects learning. 

Childhood ADHD


These are the most common ways ADD/ADHD shows up in children:

  • Challenge #1: They  have trouble making and keeping friends.  The ADHD link:   Kids with ADHD often don’t notice how their behavior affects other people.  They may interrupt others and have trouble filtering what they say—which could irritate others. Kids with ADHD can be very intense and demanding without realizing it.  Their difficulty with taking turns and waiting for things can cause friendships to burn out.


  • Challenge #2:They struggle with conversation and listening, especially to multi-task instructions.  The ADHD link:  Kids with ADHD can easily lose the thread of conversation, misinterpret what others are saying and become distracted by unrelated thoughts.   They often do not listen to all what is said or just get the first or last part.  Even if they’re able to create a mental picture of what is being said, they often can’t hold onto it long enough to finish the task. 


  • Challenge #3: They overreact to situations.  The ADHD link:  Kids with ADHD might struggle with self-control. They may lash out physically when they’re upset, or have meltdowns at an age when it’s no longer appropriate. 

  • Challenge #4: They are not always reliable, such as forgetting homework, not following through on chores, or forgetting what someone just said.   The ADHD link: Kids with ADHD can have trouble with planning and follow-through. That may cause other kids to think they can’t be counted on when doing group projects.  Even if they’re able to create a mental picture, they often can’t hold onto it long enough to finish the task. 


  • Challenge #5: They are easily distracted and unfocused, or “day-dreamy,” The ADD link: Kids with ADD may focus for hours on something they like or want to do such as video games or watching TV.  When they are required to focus on something that is hard, they don't like or time consuming, they can't stay focused or are easily distracted.


  • Challenge #6: They constantly move or are restless.  The ADHD link:  They ave a tendency to take risks and crave excitement, get bored easily, they cannot sit still or they fidget, and they talk all the time.


***Is your child easily distracted? Impulsive? Daydreamy? Hyperactive? If your child acts these ways most of the time, what you’re seeing may be signs of ADHD.


Adult ADHD

Attention deficit disorder often goes unrecognized throughout childhood. This was especially common in the past, when very few people were aware of ADD/ADHD. Instead of recognizing your symptoms and identifying the real issue, your family, teachers, or other parents may have labeled you a dreamer, a goof-off, a slacker, a troublemaker, or just a bad student.


Alternately, they may have learned to compensate for the symptoms of ADHD when they were young, only to run into problems as their responsibilities increase. The more balls they are trying to keep in the air—pursuing a career, raising a family, running a household—the greater the demand on their abilities to organize, focus, and remain calm. This can be challenging for anyone, but if they have ADHD, it can feel downright impossible.


Common adult ADHD symptoms:

  • Trouble concentrating and staying focused

  • “zoning out” without realizing it, even in the middle of a conversation

  • extreme distractibility; wandering attention makes it hard to stay on track

  • difficulty paying attention or focusing, such as when reading or listening to others

  • struggling to complete tasks, even ones that seem simple

  • tendency to overlook details, leading to errors or incomplete work

  • poor listening skills; hard time remembering conversations and following directions



  •  Tendency to become absorbed in tasks that are stimulating and rewarding. 

  •  A coping mechanism for distraction—a way of tuning out the chaos. It can be so strong that they become oblivious to everything going on around them

  • They may be so engrossed in a book, a TV show, or their computer that they completely lose track of time and neglect the things they are supposed to be doing

  • It can be an asset when channeled into productive activities, but it can also lead to work and relationship problems if left unchecked


Disorganization and forgetfulness 

  • Life often seems chaotic and out of control

  • Staying organized and on top of things can be extremely challenging 

  • Sorting out what information is relevant for the task at hand, prioritizing the things they need to do 

  • Keeping track of tasks and responsibilities, and managing time 

  • Poor organizational skills (home, office, desk, or car is extremely messy and cluttered) 

  • Tendency to procrastinate

  • Trouble starting and finishing projects

  • Chronic lateness

  • Frequently forgetting appointments, commitments, and deadlines

  • Constantly losing or misplacing things (keys, wallet, phone, documents, bills)

  • Underestimating the time it will take you to complete tasks



  • Have trouble inhibiting their behaviors, comments, and responses. They might act before thinking

  • Interrupting others, blurting out comments, and rushing through tasks without reading instructions

  • Impulse problems, being patient is extremely difficult. For better or for worse

  • Go headlong into situations and find themselves in potentially risky circumstances

  • Struggle with controlling impulses

  • Frequently interrupt others or talk over them

  • Have poor self-control

  • Blurt out thoughts that are rude or inappropriate without thinking

  • Have addictive tendencies

  • Act recklessly or spontaneously without regard for consequences

  • Have trouble behaving in socially appropriate ways (such as sitting still during a long meeting)


Emotional difficulties

  • Have a hard time managing their feelings, especially when it comes to emotions like anger or frustration 

  • Sense of under achievement

  • Doesn’t deal well with frustration

  • Easily flustered and stressed out

  • Irritability or mood swings

  • Trouble staying motivated

  • Hypersensitivity to criticism

  • Short, often explosive, temper

  • Low self-esteem and sense of insecurity


Hyperactivity or restlessness

  • Feelings of inner restlessness, agitation

  • Tendency to take risks

  • Getting bored easily

  • Racing thoughts

  • Trouble sitting still; constant fidgeting

  • Craving for excitement

  • Talking excessively

  • Doing a million things at once

You don’t have to be hyperactive to have ADHD

ADHD adults are much less likely to be hyperactive than their younger counterparts. Only a small slice of adults with ADHD, in fact, suffer from prominent symptoms of hyperactivity. Remember that names can be deceiving and you may very well have ADHD if you have one or more of the symptoms above—even if you lack hyperactivity.


Source: Dr. Thomas E. Brown, Attention Deficit Disorder: The Unfocused 

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